The era of computing is about to enter a new level with the advent of quantum computing. This quantum computer works on quantum bits or qubits, unlike digital computers which work on binary digits or bits (1 or 0). The quantum computers use various principles like superposition, interference and entanglement to represent and operate on data. Quantum superposition is where a quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more distinct quantum states. The quantum states superposed with each other result in another new quantum state just like the superposition of waves. Quantum interference is analogous to wave interference where quantum states in phase add and quantum states that are out of phase cancel each other. Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon where the quantum states are entangled with each other and cannot be described independently and are always found to be interconnected even though they can be spatially separated. Entangled particles behave as a single system even though they are separated by a spatial distance. This phenomenon is also referred to as “spooky action” by scientists. These phenomena play an important role in the working of quantum computers. Unlike digital computers which can represent either 1 or 0 at a point of time, quantum computers can simultaneously represent 1 and 0 at a point of time by superimposing which helps to overcome the limitations of digital computing enabling us to solve more complex problems. Quantum computers deploy certain algorithms like Simon’s algorithm, Shor’s algorithm and Grover’s algorithm which are frequently used in order to obtain solutions for a problem. Quantum computers give us the best solution along with all the probable solutions so it is rather probabilistic than deterministic. These computers are designed to overcome the difficulties in understanding of molecules whose behaviour can’t be simulated in classical computers perfectly. The invention of quantum computing gives rise to the designing of molecules which can lead to creating efficient chemical compounds by simulating their behaviour and understand all the ways they react. The reason it is still unavailable in the market is that the qubits are sensitive to heat and stray fields so that the state could change creating an error in the superposition which in turn creates a bigger error. So quantum computers are to be operated at extremely cold temperatures. When this problem is overcome we could expect a quantum computer soon in civilian use.

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